Network VAPT

Network VAPT

Network VAPT


A computer network is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources. Computers on a network are called nodes or we can say A network is defined as a group of two or more computer systems linked together.To communicate with other computer or node through network it uses different protocol.

  • Some basic things to know about the network

Clients and servers—how services such as e-mail and web pages connect using networks.IP addresses—how devices on a network can be found.Network hubs, switches and cables—the hardware building blocks of any network.Routers and firewalls—how to organize and control the flow of traffic on a network.


Penetration testing is a process of testing network for its security vulnerabilities. In this post we want to give you the clear image about network penetration testing stages,First directly going to penetration testing take few minutes to understand the network infrastructure or the way network work in IT sector.


We can say a network, in computing, is a group of two or more devices that can communicate. In practice, a network is comprised of a number of different computer systems connected by physical and/or wireless connections. The scale can range from a single PC sharing out basic peripherals to massive data centers located around the World, to the Internet itself. Regardless of scope, all networks allow computers and/or individuals to share information and resources.

Computer networks serve a number of purposes, some of which include:

  • Communications such as email, instant messaging, chat rooms, etc.
  • Shared hardware such as printers and input devices
  • Shared data and information through the use of shared storage devices
  • Shared software, which is achieved by running applications on remote computers

The above information tells us that what is network and how we use it in our daily routine but there is a proper way which network follow which we can call OSI model

The network follows proper standardize communication which is known as OSI model of network.

Many applications such as email, the Web, and instant messaging rely on networking. Each of these applications relies on a particular network protocol, but each protocol uses the same general network transport methods. Many people don’t realize that there are vulnerabilities in the networking protocols themselves.

When two computers talk to each other, they need to speak the same language. The structure of this language is described in layers by the OSI model. The OSI model provides standards that allow hardware, such as routers and firewalls, to focus on one particular aspect of communication that applies to them and ignore others.

Short information on OSI model

The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model is a conceptual and logical layout that defines network communication used by systems open to interconnection and communication with other systems.

The model is broken into seven subcomponents, or layers, each of which represents a conceptual collection of services provided to the layers above and below it. The OSI Model also defines a logical network and effectively describes computer packet transfer by using different layer protocols.

The OSI Model may also be referred to as the seven-layer OSI Model or the seven-layer model.

  • Physical layer This layer deals with the physical connection between two points. This is the lowest layer, whose primary role is communicating raw bit streams. This layer is also responsible for activating, maintaining, and deactivating these bit-stream communications.
  • Data-link layer This layer deals with actually transferring data between two points. In contrast with the physical layer, which takes care of sending the raw bits, this layer provides high-level functions, such as error • correction and flow control. This layer also provides procedures for activating, maintaining, and deactivating data-link connections.
  • Network layer This layer works as a middle ground; its primary role is to pass information between the lower and the higher layers. It provides addressing and routing.
  • Transport layer This layer provides transparent transfer of data between systems. By providing reliable data communication, this layer allows the higher layers to never worry about reliability or cost-effectiveness of data transmission.
  • Session layer This layer is responsible for establishing and maintaining connections between network applications.
  • Presentation layer This layer is responsible for presenting the data to applications in a syntax or language they understand. This allows for things like encryption and data compression.
  • Application layer This layer is concerned with keeping track of the requirements of the application.

When data is communicated through these protocol layers, it’s sent in small pieces called packets. Each packet contains implementations of these protocol layers. Starting from the application layer, the packet wraps the presentation layer around that data, which wraps the session layer, which wraps the transport layer, and so forth. This process is called encapsulation.

          The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

In the above information you will get the idea about how different layer use in network for communication, then we will jump to network infrastructure in this you get information on network devices and some network protocol.


Network infrastructure is the hardware and software resources of an entire network that enable network connectivity, communication, operations and management of an enterprise network. It provides the communication path and services between users, processes, applications, services and external networks/the internet. The entire network infrastructure is interconnected, and can be used for internal communications, external communications or both.

A typical network infrastructure includes:


  • Router- A router is a device that analyzes the contents of data packets transmitted within a network or to another network. Routers determine whether the source and destination are on the same network or whether data must be transferred from one network type to another, which requires encapsulating the data packet with routing protocol header information for the new network type.
  • Switches- A switch, in the context of networking is a high-speed device that receives incoming data packets and redirects them to their destination on a local area network (LAN). A LAN switch operates at the data link layer (Layer 2) or the network layer of the OSI Model and, as such it can support all types of packet protocols. Essentially switches are the traffic cops of a simple local area network.
  • LAN cards- A LAN card connects a computer to a network. LAN cards are typically built into your computer. You can connect to the network via an Ethernet cable, usb, or wirelessly. If your computer is equipped with wireless capabilities, your computer will have what is called a WLAN module. With today’s advancing technologies, most desktops, laptops, tablets, and cell phones are equipped with WLAN module.
  • Wireless routers- A wireless network allows devices to stay connected to the network but roam untethered to any wires. Access points amplify Wi-Fi signals, so a device can be far from a router but still be connected to the network.
  • Cables- Networking cables are networking hardware used to connect one network device to other network devices or to connect two or more computers to share printers, scanners etc. Different types of network cables, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber cable, and twisted pair cables, are used depending on the network's physical layer, topology, and size.



  • Network operations and management- Network Operations refers to the activities performed by internal staff or third parties that companies and service providers rely on to monitor, manage, and respond to alerts on their network's availability and performance.
  • Operating systems- All computers ship with software called an operating system (OS) to manage all the software and hardware on the computer and to provide an interface that humans can use to interact with the machines. Operating system software runs not just on laptop computers but also on smartphones, tablets, network routers and other smart devices.
  • Firewall- A firewall is a network security device that monitors incoming and outgoing network traffic and decides whether to allow or block specific traffic based on a defined set of security rules.
  • Wireless routers- A wireless network allows devices to stay connected to the network but roam untethered to any wires. Access points amplify Wi-Fi signals, so a device can be far from a router but still be connected to the network.
  • Network security applications- Network security is an organization's strategy that enables guaranteeing thesecurity of its assets including all network traffic. It includes both software and hardware technologies.



  • DSL - (Digital Subscriber Line) is a technology for bringing high- bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone lines.
  • Wireless protocols- Wireless application protocol (WAP) is a communications protocol that is used forwireless data access through most mobile wireless networks. WAP enhanceswireless specification interoperability and facilitates instant connectivity betweeninteractive wireless devices (such as mobile phones) and the Internet. We can say protocol is use as medium for communication in network.
  • IP addressing- An internet protocol address is numerical label assigned to each device connected to computer network that uses the internet protocol for communication.
  • DNS - DNS translates domain names to IP addresses so browsers can load Internet resources. Each device connected to the Internet has a unique IP address which other machines use to find the device. DNS servers eliminate the need for humans to memorize IP addresses such as (in IPv4), or more complex newer alphanumeric IP addresses such as 2400:cb00:2048:1::c629:d7a2 (in IPv6).


  • LAN (Local-Area Network)- A local area network (LAN) is a group of computers and associated devices that share a common communications line or wireless link to a server. Typically, a LAN encompasses computers and peripherals connected to a server within a distinct geographic area such as an office or a commercial establishment. Computers and other mobile devices use a LAN connection to share resources such as a printer or network storage.
  • WAN (Wide Area Network)- A wide area network (WAN) is a geographically distributed private telecommunications network that interconnects multiple local area networks (LANs). In an enterprise, a WAN may consist of connections to a company's headquarters, branch offices, colocation facilities, cloud services and other facilities. Typically, a router or other multifunction device is used to connect a LAN to a WAN. Enterprise WANs allow users to share access to applications, services and other centrally located resources.
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)- A metropolitan area network (MAN) is similar to a local area network (LAN) but spans an entire city or campus. MANs are formed by connecting multiple LANs. Thus, mans are larger than LANs but smaller than wide area networks (WAN).
    MANs are extremely efficient and provide fast communication via high-speed carriers, such as fiber optic cables.

                  The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


It is a digital language through which we communicate with others on the Internet. protocol meaning is that it a set of mutually accepted and implemented rules at both ends of the communications channel for the proper exchange of information. By adopting these rules, two devices can communicate with each other and can interchange information. We can't even think of using the Internet without Protocols. Each protocol is defined in different terms and different use with unique name. Message travel from sender to receiver via a medium (The medium is the physical path over which a message travels) using a protocol.Or in simple ways we can say protocol is set of instruction through computer communicate in network.Each of it has its own access method of exchanging data over a computer network, such as LAN, Internet, Intranet, etc. One of the most common and known protocol examples is HTTP, that is used over the world wide web(www).


  • TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -
    Transmission control protocol is used for communication over a network. In TCP data is broken down into small packets and then sent to the destination. However, IP is making sure packets are transmitted to the right address. IP is also working with TCP. It is an addressing Protocol. IP addresses packets route them and show different nodes and network Unless it reaches its right destination.
  • FTP -
    File transfer protocol is basically used for transferring files to different networks. There may be a mass of files such as text files, multimedia files, etc. This way of file transfer is quicker than other methods.
  • SMTP -
    Simple mail transfer protocol manages the transmission and outgoing mail over the internet. HTTP is based on client and server model. HTTP is used for making a connection between the web client and web server. HTTP shows information in web pages.
  • Ethernet -
    Ethernet is a most important for LAN communication. Ethernet transmits the data in digital packets. If any computer wants to use this protocol they should contain Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC). The card is implemented with unique address code fixed in the microchip.
  • Telnet -
    Telnet is an established with some rules which are used to connect to another computer. Telnet is mainly used for the remote login process. The computer which is requesting for a connection that is a local computer and which is accepting the connection that is a remote computer. If you give a command in a local computer that command is executed in the remote computer. Telnet is also based on client and server model.


TCP works with the Internet Protocol (IP), which defines how computers send packets of data to each other. Together, TCP and IP are the basic rules defining the Internet.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is part of the Internet Protocol suite used by programs running on different computers on a network. UDP is used to send short messages called datagrams but overall, it is an unreliable, connectionless protocol.

In todays time all the network system usestcpip protocol because it is more secure and reliable.
How TCP work:

                         The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

TCP use three-way handshake protocol.

  • Step 1 (SYN): In the first step, client wants to establish a connection with server, so it sends a segment with SYN(Synchronize Sequence Number) which informs server that client is likely to start communication and with what sequence number it starts segments with
  • Step 2 (SYN + ACK): Server responds to the client request with SYN-ACK signal bits set. Acknowledgement(ACK) signifies the response of segment it received and SYN signifies with what sequence number it is likely to start the segments with
  • Step 3 (ACK): In the final part client acknowledges the response of server and they both establish a reliable connection with which they will start eh actual data transfer

Simple difference between TCP and UDP

                                           The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions



The door through which data can be transmitted.

Total port count is 65535.There are two types of ports

  • Physical port : physical port such as Ethernet port, USB port and serial and parallel port.

  • Virtual port : The virtual port is use to communicate two different application. The virtual port is a part of the TCP/IP protocol.


  • ftp - 22/20 useful for file transfer
  • telnet - 23 can use for remote access
  • smtp - 25 simple mail transfer protocol
  • pop3 - 110 post office protocol it is user for mail transfer
  • imap – 143 internet message access it is use for mail transfer
  • http – 80 hyper text transfer protocol
  • https– 443
  • DNS– 53

Now the main testing part start hope you have slightly idea about what is network and how the network works. What are the different sectors we should know before starting the network pen testing?


The penetration testing it is the process to identify security vulnerabilities in an application by evaluating the system or network with various malicious techniques. the weak points of a system are exploited in this process through an authorized simulated attack. The purpose of this test is to secure important data from outsiders like hackers who can have unauthorizes access to the system. Once the vulnerability is identified it is used to exploit the system in order to gain access to sensitive information.

Before starting any testing we should know the cause of vulnerability:


  • Design and development errors : There can be flaws in the design of hardware and software. These bugs can put your business-critical data at the risk of exposure.
  • Poor system configuration : This is another cause of vulnerability. If the system is poorly configured, then it can introduce loopholes through which attackers can enter into the system & steal the information.
  • Human errors : Human factors like improper disposal of documents, leaving the documents unattended, coding errors, insider threats, sharing passwords over phishing sites, etc. can lead to security breaches.
  • Connectivity : If the system is connected to an unsecured network (open connections) then it comes in the reach of hackers.
  • Complexity : The security vulnerability rises in proportion to the complexity of a system. The more features a system has, the more chances of the system being attacked.
  • Passwords : Passwords are used to prevent unauthorized access. They should be strong enough that no one can guess your password. Passwords should not be shared with anyone at any cost and passwords should be changed periodically. In spite of these instructions, at times people reveal their passwords to others write them down somewhere and keep easy passwords that can be guessed.
  • User Input : You must have heard of SQL injection, buffer overflows, etc. The data received electronically through these methods can be used to attack the receiving system.
  • Management : is hard & expensive to manage. Sometimes organizations lack behind in proper risk management and hence vulnerability gets induced in the system.
  • Lack of training to staff : This leads to human errors and other vulnerabilities.
  • Communication : Channels like mobile network, internet, and telephone opens up security theft scope.

The first phase of penetration testing is information gathering. In penetration testinggathering as much information about our target is the first step.Information gathering or foot printing is of two types namely passive reconnaissance and active reconnaissance.


In passive reconnaissance we gather information without actually interacting with the target systems.Gathering publicly available information about a company from the internet is passive reconnaissance.


Whereas active reconnaissance requires interaction with target’s systems.Port scanning is an example of active reconnaissance.Although there are no hard and fast rules in penetration testing but it is recommended to follow a certain methodology.

You might find similarity in between network and web foot printing

Following are the different factor on which we should gatherinformation

  • Domain Name Or IP
  • Internal Domain Name Or Ip
  • Network Blocks
  • IP Address Of Reachable System
  • Rouge Ip Or Private Ip
  • TCP And UDP Service Running
  • Networking Protocol
  • Idsec Running
  • System Enumeration

The workflow for the network enumeration or gathering information:

Step Title
1 Information gathering Passive
2 Determining network range Passive
3 Identify active machines Active
4 Finding open ports Active
5 OS fingerprinting Active/Passive
6 Fingerprinting services Active
7 Mapping the network Active



Gathering initial information abut the target is the very first step in the foot printing process.Collecting different domain names associated with the target company, name servers, IP addresses etc is the goal here.A visit to the company’s website can provide us with a lot of useful information.Gathering initial information about the target is the very first step in the foot printing process.Collecting different domain names associated with thetarget company, name servers, IP addresses etc is the goal here.Gather the information for identifying various ways to intrude a network system.Information gathering is the main process for attacking any system.

Some of important tool for information gathering :


vulnerability analysis with a Linux tool called Red Hawk. Recon and mapping out our target is a key step before we begin to hack or exploit anything.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


Raccoon is a tool made for reconnaissance and information gathering with an emphasis on simplicity. It will do everything from fetching DNS records, retrieving WHOIS information, obtaining TLS data, detecting WAF presence and up to threaded dir busting and subdomain enumeration. Every scan outputs to a corresponding file. Raccoon uses Nmap to scan ports as well as utilizes some other Nmap scripts and features.

Screen shots :

             The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

           The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions



Tenable security’s Nessus is one of the most widely used communication vulnerability scanners, though many vendors provide comparable products. The nessus database includes vulnerabilities across platforms and protocols. Nessus has a modular architecture consisting of centralized servers that conduct scanning, and remote clients that allow for administrator interaction. Administrators can include NASL descriptions of all suspected vulnerabilities to develop customized scans.

  • Compatibility with computers and servers of all sizes.
  • Detection of security holes in local or remote hosts.
  • Detection of missing security updates and patches.
  • Simulated attacks to pinpoint vulnerabilities.
  • Execution of security tests in a contained environment.
  • Scheduled security audits.

Screen shots :

             The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

           The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


A simple ping command can help us identify the active machines but it takes a lot of timeidentifyingeach machine individually. In computing, a ping sweep is a method that can establish a range of IP addresses which map to live hosts.


bad Karma is a python3 GTK+ network infrastructure penetration testing toolkit. bad Karma aim to help thetester (information gathering, vulnerabilityassessment,exploitation,post-exploitation and reporting). It allow the tester to save time by having point-and-click access to their toolkit and interacted with them through GUIs or Terminals, also every task is logged under a SQLite database in order to help during the reporting phase or in an incident response scenario.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


Angry IP scanner is a very fast IP address and port scanner.It can scan IP addresses in any range as well as any their ports. It is cross-platform and lightweight. Not requiring any installations, it can be freely copied and used anywhere.Angry IP scanner simply pings each IP address to check if it’s alive, then optionally it is resolving its hostname, determines the MAC address, scans ports, etc. The amount of gathered data about each host can be extended with plugins.It also has additional features, like NetBIOS information (computer name, workgroup name, and currently logged in Windows user), favorite IP address ranges, web server detection, customizable openers, etc.Scanning results can be saved to CSV, TXT, XML or IP-Port list files. With help of plugins, Angry IP Scanner can gather any information about scanned IPs. Anybody who can write Java code is able to write plugins and extend functionality of Angry IP Scanner.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

             The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


we can proceed further to identify the open ports and access points along with the OS the devices are running.The process of identification of the OS is called OS fingerprinting.


Nmap is the most popular port scanning tool out there. It can perform a wide array of scans like TCP intense scan plus UDP port scan, TCP stealth scan, OS fingerprinting etc and can also load custom scripts.Nmap also allows us to customize the speed of the scans.

Nmap has a unique process of fingerprinting applications/devices to help us identify their communications patterns quicker.

Nmap can be used for network auditing by specifying whole subnets that you would like to scan for open/closed ports.

Nmap has a diverse presence and can be used from most operating systems.

Nmap can be used to monitor single hosts as well as vast networks that encompass hundreds of thousands of devices and multitudes of subnets.

The packets that Nmap sends out return with IP addresses and a wealth of other data, allowing you to identify all sorts of network attributes, giving you a profile or map of the network and allowing you to create a hardware and software inventory.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

When using nmap for scanning, it displays all the open, closed or filtered ports along with the service name and protocol.


SPARTA is a python GUI application that simplifies network infrastructure penetration testing by aiding the penetration tester in the scanning and enumeration phase. It allows the tester to save time by having point-and-click access to their toolkit and by displaying all tool output in a convenient way.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

There is one more part in network penetration testing.


Network traffic capturing is another important stage for penetration testing.

Packet capture is a computer networking term for intercepting a data packet that is crossing or moving over a specific computer network.Once a packet is captured, it is stored temporarily so that it can be analyzed. The packet is inspected to help diagnose and solve network problems and determine whether network security policies are being followed.Hackers can also use packet capturing techniques to steal data that is being transmitted over a network.

The different applications and uses of data capturing include the following:

  • Security : Data capturing is used to identify security flaws and breaches by determining the point of intrusion.
  • Identification of Data Leakage : Content analysis and monitoring helps to ascertain the leakage point and its sources.
  • Troubleshooting : Managed through data capturing, troubleshooting detects the occurrence of undesired events over a network and helps solve them. If the network administrator has full access to a network resource, he can access it remotely and troubleshoot any issues.
  • Identifying Data/Packet Loss : When data is stolen, the network administrator can retrieve the stolen or lost information easily using data capturing techniques.
  • Forensics : Whenever viruses, worms or other intrusions are detected in computers, the network administrator determines the extent of the problem. After initial analysis, she may block some segments and network traffic in order to save historical information and network data.

A sniffer (packet sniffer) is a tool that intercepts data flowing in a network. If computers are connected to a local area network that is not filtered or switched, the traffic can be broadcast to all computers contained in the same segment. This doesn’t generally occur, since computers are generally told to ignore all the comings and goings of traffic from other computers. However, in the case of a sniffer, all traffic is shared when the sniffer software commands the Network Interface Card (NIC) to stop ignoring the traffic. The NIC is put into promiscuous mode, and it reads communications between computers within a particular segment. This allows the sniffer to seize everything that is flowing in the network, which can lead to the unauthorized access of sensitive data. A packet sniffer can take the form of either a hardware or software solution.

A sniffer is also known as a packet analyzer.

Sniffing and monitoring the traffic is very important job in penetration testing, by doing sniffing we analyze what type of data been transfer through network. Some time we get more valuable information like user credential and password or which is the main host server and all computers are communicating with.Sniffing help you to analyze how the network is processing and it helps you for penetration testing.

Sniffing or network traffic capturing tool


Wireshark is a free and open-source packet analyzer. It is used for network troubleshooting, analysis, software and communications protocol development, and education.

Wireshark is the world's leading network traffic analyzer, and an essential tool for any security professional or systems administrator. This free software lets you analyze network traffic in real time, and is often the best tool for troubleshooting issues on your network.

Wireshark intercepts traffic and converts that binary traffic into human-readable format. This makes it easy to identify what traffic is crossing your network.

While Wireshark supports more than two thousand network protocols, many of them esoteric, uncommon, or old, the modern security professional will find analyzing IP packets to be of most immediate usefulness. The majority of the packets on your network are likely to be TCP, UDP, and ICMP.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions


ARP spoofing is an attack against an Ethernet or Wi-Fi network to get between the router and the target user. In an ARP spoofing attack, messages meant for the target are sent to the attacker instead, allowing the attacker to spy on, deny service to, or man-in-the-middle a target. One of the most popular tools for performing this attack is Ettercap, which comes preinstalled on Kali Linux.

On a regular network, messages are routed over Ethernet or Wi-Fi by associating the MAC address of a connected device with the IP address used to identify it by the router. Usually, this happens via an address resolution protocol (ARP) message indicating which device's MAC address goes with which IP address. It lets the rest of the network know where to send traffic — but it can be easily spoofed to change the way traffic is routed.

In an ARP spoofing attack, a program like Ettercap will send spoofed messages attempting to get nearby devices to associate the hacker's MAC address with the IP address of the target.

Types of ARP Spoofing Attacks

There can be three primary outcomes after an attacker gains initial success in poisoning the ARP cache of other hosts on the network:

  • The attacker can spy on trafficThey can lurk in the shadows, seeing everything that the target user does on the network. It's pretty self-explanatory.
  • The attacker can intercept and modify the packets in a man-in-the-middle attackThey can intercept passwords typed into an HTTP website, see DNS requests, and resolve IP addresses the target is navigating to in order to see what websites the target is visiting. In a man-in-the-middle attack, the attacker has the opportunity to not only see what's happening on the network but manipulate it as well. For instance, they can attempt to downgrade the encryption the connection is using by deliberately requesting insecure versions of webpages in an effort to make the attacker's job of sniffing passwords easier. In addition, a hacker can simply be a nuisance. For example, they can replace words in the text of a website, flip or replace images, or modify other types of data flowing to and from the target.
  • This is possibly the most frustrating to a target. While a Wi-Fi authentication attack is by far the more common cause of a Wi-Fi network being attacked, ARP spoofing can be much more difficult to figure out. If the attacker chooses not to forward on the packets now being sent to it instead of the target, the target will never receive them. The Wi-Fi network can be jammed from the inside, getting between the target and the router and then dropping the packets flowing between.

The major obvious limitation of ARP spoofing is that it only works if you're connected to a Wi-Fi network. This means it works on open networks but may not work well against networks that have more sophisticated monitoring or firewalls that may detect this sort of behavior.

Screen shots :

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

            The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions

                             The Complete Guide to Network VAPT | Pristine InfoSolutions